Literary Environment at the "Period of the Beloved Freedom"
In this essay, literary milieu of the first five years of the Second Constitutional Period will be described. Although the main topic of the many short lived newspapers and journals was enmity to Abdulhamid II, poets like Tevfik Fikret, Abdülhak Hamid, Rıza Tevfik and Mehmet Akif as strong voices of this period dominated the literary milieu. Yeni Lisan (the new language) movement initiated by Ömer Seyfeddin and Turkism led by Ziya Gökalp, after the Balkan Wars, with the support of the Committee of Union and Progress, were on the way to become a new literary focus. One could argue that the polemic between the Fecr-i Ati (the coming dawn) and the New Language groups as well as struggles between Mehmet Akif and Tevfik Fikret dominated the literary discussions during the early years of the Second Constitutional Period. As a continuation of the Edebiyat-ı Cedide (new literature), despite its weaknesses the Fecr_i Ati paved the way for the emergence of strong figures like Ahmet Haşim, Yakup Kadri and Refik Halid whereas Köprülüzade Fuad and Hamdullah Suphi left it for new Language Movement. In this environment, Halide Edip emerged as a strong women novelist and supported Turkism with her novel, Yeni Turan. This period also constituted the background for the National Literary Movement which essentially emerged during the war years.
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