Indian Way of Thinking
Intellectual works produced in a civilization, and academic, political, economic and social institutions evolved bound with these works bear characteristics of the way of thinking particular to that civilization.
In a civilization, even though various contradicting paradigms are adopted and intense disputes take place among various schools of thought, a similar way of thinking lies at the bottom. Ideas change with time; different trends of thought arise, but the way of thinking constitutes their common base and element of continuity. For instance, even though Newtonian and Einsteinian physics represent different paradigms, they are products of a similar way of thinking, considering that they adopt nature-mind dichotomy and explain the nature based on mathematical natural laws. Besides, even if thoughts on being may differ, the way of thinking may be similar. According to Vedanta, only one being has real existence, but for Sankhya many beings have real existence. However, they explain the phenomenal world through inactive absolute being. Although Hegel and Marx adopt opposing ontologies, they have self-centered epistemology, progressive and linear perception of time.
In this study, Indian way of thinking was considered with its ontological, epistemological and axiological aspects within the framework of the perception of relation between the absolute and the world, the absolute and the man, the man and the world, and compared to other civilizations, Islamic, Western, and Zoroastrian.
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